Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. Tetanus spores are found in soil throughout the world. The disease is acquired when material containing these spores contaminates a wound. The toxin released from the bacteria may then attack the nerves of the brain and spinal cord. Tetanus-prone wounds include the following:
It is important to be aware of the risk of accidents while travelling. Travellers should thoroughly clean all wounds and seek appropriate medical attention.
Travellers should have completed (or be up-to-date with) a primary vaccination course according to the NHS vaccination schedule. If travelling to a country where medical facilities may be limited, a booster dose of a tetanus-containing vaccine is recommended if the last dose was more than ten years ago even if five doses of vaccine have been given previously.